The SuperCam Instrument Suite on the NASA Mars 2020 Rover: Body Unit and Combined System Tests
Roger C. Wiens, Sylvestre Maurice, Scott H. Robinson, Anthony E. Nelson, Philippe Cais, Pernelle Bernardi, Raymond T. Newell, Sam Clegg, Shiv K. Sharma, Steven Storms, Jonathan Deming, Darrel Beckman, Ann M. Ollila, Olivier Gasnault, Ryan B. Anderson, Yves André, S. Mike Angel, Gorka Arana, Pierre Beck, Joseph Becker, Karim Benzerara, Sylvain Bernard, Olivier Beyssac, Louis Borges, Bruno Bousquet, Kerry Boyd, Michael Caffrey, Jeffrey Carlson, Kepa Castro, Jorden Celis, Baptiste Chide, Kevin Clark, Edward Cloutis, Agnes Cousin, Magdalena Dale, Lauren Deflores, Erwin Dehouck, Dorothea Delapp, Muriel Deleuze, Christophe Donny, Giles Dromart, Bruno Dubois M. George Duran, Miles Egan, Cecile Fabre, Amaury Fau, Woodward Fischer, Olivier Forni, Thierry Fouchet, Reuben Fresquez, Jens Frydenvang, Denise Gasway, Ivar Gontijo, Jonh Grotzinger, Xavier Jacob, Sophie Jacquinod, Jeffrey R. Johnson, Roberta A. Klisiewicz1, Gaetan Lacombe, James Lake, Nina Lanza, Javier Laserna, Jeremie Lasue, Laetitia Le Deit, Stephane Le Mouelic, Carey Legett IV, Richard Leveille, Eric Lewin, Ralph Lorenz, Eric Lorigny, Briana Lucero, Juan Manuel Madariaga, Morton Madsen, Soren Madsen, Nicolas Mangold, Jose Antonio Manrique, J.P. Martinez, Jesus Martinez-Frias, Kevin P. McCabe, Timothy McConnochie, Justin M. McGlown, Scott McLennan, Noureddine Melikechi, Pierre-Yves Meslin, John M. Michel, David Mimoun, Anupam Misra, Gilles Montagnac, Franck Montmessim, J. Moros, Valerie Mousset, Naomi Murdoch, Horton Newsom, Napoleon Nguyen Tuong, Guillame Orttner, Logan A. Ott1, Zachary R. Ousnamer, Rafal Pawluczyk, Laurent Pares, Yann Parot, C. Glen Peterson, Edwin S. Phillips, Paolo Pilleri, Cedric Pilorget, Patrick Pinet, Gabriel Pont, Francois Poulet, Cheryl Provost, Cathy Quantin-Nataf, Benjamin Quertier, William Rapin, Jean-Michel Reess, Amy H. Regan, Adriana L. Reyes-Newell, Philip J. Romano, Clement Royer, Fernando Rull, Benigno Sandoval, Joseph H. Sarrao, Violaine Sautter, Marcel J. Schoppers, Susanne Schroeder, Daniel Seitz, Terra Shepherd, Pablo Sobron, Vishnu Sridhar, Mike Toplis, Imanol Torre, Ian A. Trettel, Andres Valdez, Jacob Valdez, Dawn Venhaus, Peter Willis, Space Science Reviews, 2021, 217, 2 – 87
The SuperCam instrument suite provides the Mars 2020 rover, Perseverance, with a number of versatile remote-sensing techniques that can be used at long distance as well as within the robotic-arm workspace. These include laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), remote time-resolved Raman and luminescence spectroscopies, and visible and infrared (VISIR; separately referred to as VIS and IR) reflectance spectroscopy. A remote micro-imager (RMI) provides high-resolution color context imaging, and a microphone can be used as a stand-alone tool for environmental studies or to determine physical properties of rocks and soils from shock waves of laser-produced plasmas. SuperCam is built in three parts: The mast unit (MU), consisting of the laser, telescope, RMI, IR spectrometer, and associated electronics, is described in a companion paper. The on-board calibration targets are described in another companion paper. Here we describe SuperCam’s body unit (BU) and testing of the integrated instrument. The BU, mounted inside the rover body, receives light from the MU via a 5.8 m optical fiber. The light is split into three wavelength bands by a demultiplexer, and is routed via fiber bundles to three optical spectrometers, two of which (UV and violet; 245-340 and 385-465 nm) are crossed Czerny-Turner reflection spectrometers, nearly identical to their counterparts on ChemCam. The third is a high-efficiency transmission spectrometer containing an optical intensifier capable of gating exposures to 100 ns or longer, with variable delay times relative to the laser pulse. This spectrometer covers 535-853 nm (
Raman shift relative to the 532 nm green laser beam) with full-width at half-maximum peak resolution in the Raman fingerprint region. The BU electronics boards interface with the rover and control the instrument, returning data to the rover. Thermal systems maintain a warm temperature during cruise to Mars to avoid contamination on the optics, and cool the detectors during operations on Mars. Results obtained with the integrated instrument demonstrate its capabilities for LIBS, for which a library of 332 standards was developed. Examples of Raman and VISIR spectroscopy are shown, demonstrating clear mineral identification with both techniques. Luminescence spectra demonstrate the utility of having both spectral and temporal dimensions. Finally, RMI and microphone tests on the rover demonstrate the capabilities of these subsystems as well.