Dual-spectroscopy platform for the surveillance of Mars mineralogy using a decisions fusion architecture on simultaneous LIBS-Raman data
J. Moros, M. El Faham, J.J. Laserna, Analytical Chemistry, 2018, 90, 2079 – 2087
A single platform, integrated by a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy detector and a Raman spectroscopy sensor, has been designed to remotely (5 m) and simultaneously register the elemental and molecular signatures of rocks under Martian surface conditions. From this information, new data fusion architecture at decisions level is proposed for the correct categorization of the rocks. The approach is based on a decision-making process from the sequential checking of the spectral features representing the cationic and anionic counterparts of the specimen. The scrutiny of the LIBS response by using a moving-window algorithm informs on the diversity of the elemental constituents. The output rate of emission lines allows projecting in a loop the elements as the cationic counterpart of the rock. In parallel, the Raman response of the unknown is compared with all the molecular counterparts of the hypothesized cation that are stored in a spectral library. The largest similarity rate unveils the final identity of the unknown. The identification capabilities of the architecture have been underscored through blind tests of 10 natural rocks with different origins. The great majority of forecasts have matched with the real identities of the inspected targets. The strength of this platform to simultaneously acquire the multielemental and the molecular information from a specimen by using the same laser events greatly enhances the “on-surface” missions for the surveillance of mineralogy.